PMP Exam Prep – Project Time Management

Project Time Management

Processes in Project Time Management

  1. Plan Schedule Management
  2. Define Activities
  3. Sequence Activities
  4. Estimate Activities Resources
  5. Estimate Activities Duration
  6. Develop Schedule
  7. Control Schedule

1. Plan Schedule Management

  • The process of establishing policies, procedures, and documentation for planning, developing, managing, executing, and controlling project schedule.

Key Inputs

  • Project Management Plan
  • Project Charter

Tools and Techniques

  • Analytical Techniques
    • Various techniques used to evaluate, analyze, or forecast potential outcomes bases on possible variations of the project or environmental variables and their relationships with other variables.
  • Meetings

Key Outputs

  • Schedule Management Plan
    • A component of the project management plan that establishes the criteria and the activities for developing, monitoring and controlling the schedule.

2. Define Activities

  • The process of identifying and documenting the specific actions te be performed to produce the project deliverables.

Key Inputs

  • Schedule Management Plan
  • Scope Baseline

Tools and Techniques

  • Decomposition
  • Rolling Wave Planning
    • An iterative planning technique in which the work to be accomplished int eh near term is planned in detail, while the work in the future is planned at a higher level.

Key Outputs

  • Activity list
    • A document tabulation of scheduled activities that shows the activities description, activity identifier, and sufficiently detailed scope of work description so project team members understand what work is to be performed.
  • Activity Attributes
    • Multiple attributes associated with each scheduled activity that can be included within the activity list. Activity attributes include activity codes, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags, resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions.
  • Milestone Lists
    • A list identifying all project milestones and normally indicates whether the milestone is mandatory or optional.

3. Sequence Activities

  • The process of identifying and documenting relationships among project activities.

Key Inputs

  • Schedule Management Plan
  • Activities List
  • Activities Attributes
  • Milestone Lists

Tools and Techniques

  • Precedence Diagraming Method (PDM)
    • A technique used for constructing a schedule model in which activities are represented by nodes and are graphically linked by one or more logical relationships to show the sequence in which the activities are to be performed.
  • Dependance Determination
    • A technique used to identify the type of dependency that is used to create the logical relationships between predecessor and successor activities.
  • Leads and Lags
    • Lead: the amount of time whereby a successor activity can be advanced with respect to predecessor activity
    • Lag: the amount of time whereby a successor activity is required to be delayed with respect to a predecessor activity.

Types of Dependencies

  • Finish to Start (FS)
    • successor activity cannot start until the predecessor is finished.
  • Start to Start (SS)
    • successor activity cannot start until predecessor activity has started.
  • Finish to Finish (FF)
    • successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has finished.
  • Start to Finish (SF)
    • successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has started.

Dependency Determination

  • Identify the type of dependence that is used to create the logical relationships between predecessors and successor activities.

4. Estimate Activity Resources

  • The process of estimating the type and quantities of material, human resources, equipment, or supplies required to perform each activity.

Key Inputs

  • Schedule Management Plan
  • Activity List
  • Activity Attributes

Tools and Techniques

  • Alternative Analysis
    • A technique used to evaluate identified options in order to select which options or approaches to execute and perform the work of the project.
  • Published Estimating Data
  • Bottom-Up Estimating
    • A method of estimating project duration or cost by aggregating the estimates of the lower-level components of the WBS.

Key Outputs

  • Activity Resource Requirments
  • Resource Breakdown Structure

5. Estimate Activities Duration

  • It estimates the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources.

Key Inputs

  • Schedule Management Plan
  • Activity List
  • Activity Breakdown Requirements
  • Activity Breakdown Structure

Tools and Techniques

  • Expert Judgement
  • Analogous Estimating
    • using historical data from similar projects
  • Parametric estimating
    • an algorithm is used to calculate cost or duration based on historical data
  • Three-Point Estimating
    • using an average of optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely estimates.
  • Group Decision Making
  • Reserve Analysis
    • an analytical technique to determine the essential features and relationships of components in the project management plan to establish a reserve for the schedule duration, budget, estimated cost, or funds for a project.

Key Outputs

  • Activity Duration Estimates
  • Project Documents Updates

6. Develop Schedule

  • Analyzes activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule model.

Key Inputs

  • Schedule Management Plan
  • Activity List
  • Activity Resource Requirements
  • Resource Calendars
  • Activity Duration Estimates
  • Project Network Schedule Diagrams
  • Activity Attributes

Tool And Techniques

  • Critical Path Method (CPM)
    • The Method used to estimate the minimum project duration and determine the amount of scheduling flexibility on the logical network paths within the schedule model.
  • Critical Chain Method
    • a schedule that allows the project team to place buffers on any project schedule path to account for limited resources and project uncertainties.
  • Resource Optimization Techniques
    • Techniques used to adjust the start and finish dates of activities that adjust planned resource use to be equal to or less than resource availability
  • Modeling Techniques
  • Schedule Compression
    • techniques used to shorten the schedule duration without reducing the project scope.

Key Outputs

  • Schedule Baseline
    • Approved version of the schedule model that can be changed only through formal change conrol process and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results.

7. Control Schedule

  • Process of monitoring the status of project activities to update project process and manage changes to the schedule baseline to achieve the plan

Key Inputs

  • Project Management Plan
  • Work Performance Data

Tools and Techniques

  • Trend Analysis
  • Schedule Variances
  • Schedule Performance Index (SPI)
  • Project Management Software

Key Input

  • Work Performance Info
  • Schedule Forecasts
  • Change Requests
"Material in this blog post are based on the text, Project Management Institute, A Guide to the Project
Management Body of Knowledge (PEMBOK Guide), Fifth Edition, Project Management, Institute, Inc 2013"

"The definitions in this blog post are taken from the Glossarey of the Project Management Institue,
A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, (PMBOK Guide) - Fifthe Edition,
Project Management Institue, Inc. 2013"

"PMI, PMP, PMBOK are registered marks of the Project Management Institue, Inc"